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Ciaran Fagan

DR

Contact Details


X223

T: Ext. 5288
E: Ciaran.Fagan@dcu.ie
Associate Professor


Biography


Ciarán Ó'Fágáin [Ciarán Fagan]

Member, National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology (NICB)
Member, National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR)

2011-14 Head, School of Biotechnology.
2009  Invited speaker, 8th International Conference on Protein Stabilisation – ProStab2009, Apr 14-17, Graz, Austria.
2006-10 Deputy Head, School of Biotechnology.

2004 School Research Convenor (until 2008); Promoted Senior Lecturer (Dec).

1997 Published 200-page sole-author Stabilizing Protein Function, Springer, Berlin ISBN 3 540 63189 5.
1990
Appointed to permanent academic position. 1987-90 Postdoc researcher, temporary lecturer, NIHED/ DCU.
1984-7 Noctech Ltd (later Cambridge Diagnostics), Galway: immunodiagnostics development.

1981-4 WBE Ltd (later InterBio), Dublin: microbial biomass product development and technical services.

1982 PhD, University of Dublin (Trinity College) for 1979-81 research on mammalian arylsulphatases (Biochemistry Dept.; 2 peer-reviewed papers, 1 conference paper).

1978 BA (Mod), H2.1, Biochemistry, University of Dublin (Trinity College).
 

Total Graduations and Publications: 9 PhD, 4 MSc Graduates.
>40 peer-reviewed papers, 8 refereed reviews (including 2 invited articles), 1 sole-author book, 10 book chapters, 2 patent applications, 8 conference/ other papers.

Books

  Year Publication
1997 Stabilizing Protein Function.
C Ó'Fágáin (1997) Stabilizing Protein Function. Berlin: Springer Verlag. [Details]

Book Chapters

  Year Publication
2017 'Storage and Lyophilization of Pure Proteins'
Ó’Fágáin, Ciarán; Colliton, Keith. (2017) 'Storage and Lyophilization of Pure Proteins' In: Walls, Dermot, Loughran, Sinead (eds). Protein Chromatography Methods and Protocols 2nd ed. NY: Humana Press-Springer Nature. [DOI] [Details]
2017 'Protein Stability: Enhancement and Measurement'
Ó’Fágáin, Ciarán (2017) 'Protein Stability: Enhancement and Measurement' In: Walls, Dermot, Loughran, Sinead (eds). Protein Chromatography Methods and Protocols 2nd ed. NY: Humana Press-Springer Nature. [DOI] [Details]
2017 'Gel-Filtration Chromatography'
Ó’Fágáin, Ciarán; Cummins, Philip M.; O'Connor, Brendan. (2017) 'Gel-Filtration Chromatography' In: Dermot Walls, Sinéad T. Loughran (eds). Protein Chromatography Methods and Protocols 2nd ed. NY: Humana Press-Springer Nature. [DOI] [Details]
2012 'Engineering Protein Stability'
Ciarán Ó'Fágáin (2012) 'Engineering Protein Stability' In: Protein Engineering Handbook vol 3. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. [Details]
2011 'Engineering Protein Stability'
Ciarán Ó'Fágáin (2011) 'Engineering Protein Stability' In: Protein Chromatography: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 681. Humana Press-Springer. [DOI] [Details]
2011 'Storage and Lyophilisation of Pure Proteins'
Ciarán Ó'Fágáin (2011) 'Storage and Lyophilisation of Pure Proteins' In: In: Protein Chromatography: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 681. Humana Press-Springer. [DOI] [Details]
2011 'Gel-Filtration Chromatography'
Ciarán Ó'Fágáin, PM Cummins & BF O’Connor. (2011) 'Gel-Filtration Chromatography' In: Protein Chromatography: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 681. Humana Press-Springer. [DOI] [Details]
2008 'Stability and Kinetic Studies on Recombinant Human Pyroglutamyl Peptidase 1 and a Single-Site Variant, Y147F'
K Mtawae, B O'Connor & C Ó'Fágáin (2008) 'Stability and Kinetic Studies on Recombinant Human Pyroglutamyl Peptidase 1 and a Single-Site Variant, Y147F' In: Biotechnology: Research, Technology and Applications. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. [Details]
2008 'Chemically stabilized subtilisins in peptide synthesis'
S Colleary & C Ó'Fágáin (2008) 'Chemically stabilized subtilisins in peptide synthesis' In: Biotechnology and Bioengineering. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. [Details]
2004 'Storage of Pure Proteins'
C Ó'Fágáin. (2004) 'Storage of Pure Proteins' In: Protein Purification Protocols, 2nd ed. Totowa, NJ:: Humana Press. [Details]
2004 'Lyophilization of Proteins '
C Ó'Fágáin. (2004) 'Lyophilization of Proteins ' In: Protein Purification Protocols:2nd edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. [Details]
1996 'Bypassing the ribosome: peptide synthesis without translation'
A Murphy & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Bypassing the ribosome: peptide synthesis without translation' In: Essays in Biochemistry vol 31 :. London: Portland Press. [Details]
1994 'Horseradish peroxidase: the analyst's friend'
O Ryan, M Smyth & C Ó'Fágáin. (1994) 'Horseradish peroxidase: the analyst's friend' In: Essays in Biochemistry vol 28. London: Portland Press. [Details]

Peer Reviewed Journals

  Year Publication
2019 'Unravelling enhancement of antibody fragment stability – role of format structure and cysteine modification'
Hui Ma, Ciarán Ó’Fágáin, Richard O'Kennedy (2019) 'Unravelling enhancement of antibody fragment stability – role of format structure and cysteine modification'. Journal of Immunological Methods, 464 :57-63 [DOI] [Details]
2014 'Stability properties of an ancient plant peroxidase'
Loughran NB, O'Connell MJ, O'Connor B, Ó'Fágáin C. (2014) 'Stability properties of an ancient plant peroxidase'. BIOCHIMIE, 104 :156-159 [DOI] [Details]
2012 'Functional Consequence of Positive Selection Revealed Through Rational Mutagenesis of Human Myeloperoxidase'
Loughran, NB; Hinde, S; McCormick-Hill, S; Leidal, KG; Bloomberg, S; Loughran, ST; O’Connor, B; Ó´Fágáin, C; Nauseef WJ; O’Connell, MJ. (2012) 'Functional Consequence of Positive Selection Revealed Through Rational Mutagenesis of Human Myeloperoxidase'. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 29 :2039-2046 [DOI] [Details]
2011 'The former annotated human pseudogene dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 (DHFRL1) is expressed and functional'
McEntee G, Minguzzi S, O’Brien K, Ben Larbi N, Loscher C, Ó’Fágáin C, & Parle-McDermott A. (2011) 'The former annotated human pseudogene dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 (DHFRL1) is expressed and functional'. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. PROCEEDINGS (PRINT), 108 :15157-15162 [Details]
2010 'Forde J, Tully E, Vakurov A, Gibson TD, Millner P, Chemical modification and immobilisation of laccase from Trametes hirsuta and from Myceliophthora thermophila'
Forde J, Tully E, Vakurov A, Gibson TD, Millner P, Ó’Fágáin C. (2010) 'Forde J, Tully E, Vakurov A, Gibson TD, Millner P, Chemical modification and immobilisation of laccase from Trametes hirsuta and from Myceliophthora thermophila'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 46: :430-437 [DOI] [Details]
2010 'Chemical modification and immobilisation of lipase B from Candida antarctica onto mesoporous silicates'
Forde J, Vakurov A, Gibson TD, Millner P, Whelehan M, Marison IW, Ó’Fágáin C. (2010) 'Chemical modification and immobilisation of lipase B from Candida antarctica onto mesoporous silicates'. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR CATALYSIS B-ENZYMATIC, 66: :203-209 [DOI] [Details]
2009 'Stability and catalytic properties of chemically modified pig trypsin'
Sandra COLLEARY & Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN (2009) 'Stability and catalytic properties of chemically modified pig trypsin'. BIOCATALYSIS AND BIOTRANSFORMATION, 27 :309-317 [DOI] [Details]
2008 'Effects of Mutations in the Helix G Region of Horseradish Peroxidase'
Barry J RYAN, Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN (2008) 'Effects of Mutations in the Helix G Region of Horseradish Peroxidase'. BIOCHIMIE, 90 :1414-1421 [DOI] [Details]
2008 'Consensus Mutagenesis Reveals that Non-Helical Regions Influence Thermal Stability of Horseradish Peroxidase'
Barry J RYAN, Mary J O'CONNELL, Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN. (2008) 'Consensus Mutagenesis Reveals that Non-Helical Regions Influence Thermal Stability of Horseradish Peroxidase'. BIOCHIMIE, 90 :1389-1396 [DOI] [Details]
2007 'Effects of single mutations on the stability of horseradish peroxidase to hydrogen peroxide'
Barry J RYAN, Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN (2007) 'Effects of single mutations on the stability of horseradish peroxidase to hydrogen peroxide'. BIOCHIMIE, 89 :1029-1032 [DOI] [Details]
2007 'Arginine-to-lysine substitutions influence recombinant horseradish peroxidase stability and immobilisation effectiveness'
Ryan B.J. & Ó'Fágáin C. (2007) 'Arginine-to-lysine substitutions influence recombinant horseradish peroxidase stability and immobilisation effectiveness'. BMC BIOTECHNOLOGY, 7 [DOI] [Details]
2007 'Covalent attachment of ferrocene to soybean peroxidase glycans: electron transfer mediation to redox enzymes'
Neil CAROLAN, Robert J FORSTER, Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN (2007) 'Covalent attachment of ferrocene to soybean peroxidase glycans: electron transfer mediation to redox enzymes'. BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY, 18 :524-529 [DOI] [Details]
2007 'Solvent and Thermal Stability, and pH Kinetics, of Proline-specific Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV-like Enzyme from Bovine Serum'
Deborah M RUTH, Seamus J BUCKLEY, Brendan F O'CONNOR, Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN. (2007) 'Solvent and Thermal Stability, and pH Kinetics, of Proline-specific Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV-like Enzyme from Bovine Serum'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 41 :307-311 [DOI] [Details]
2006 'Horseradish and soybean peroxidases: comparable tools for alternative niches?'
Barry J RYAN, Neil CAROLAN & Ciarán Ó'FÁGÁIN (2006) 'Horseradish and soybean peroxidases: comparable tools for alternative niches?'. TRENDS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (TIBTECH), 24 :355-363 [DOI] [Details]
2006 'Peptide synthesis by recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1'
Deborah M RUTH, Gillian McMAHON & Ciarán Ó'Fágáin (2006) 'Peptide synthesis by recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1'. BIOCHIMIE, 88 :117-120 [Details]
2003 'Effects of Phthalic Anhydride Modification on Horseradish Peroxidase Stability and Activity'
A-M O'Brien, AT Smith & C Ó'Fágáin. (2003) 'Effects of Phthalic Anhydride Modification on Horseradish Peroxidase Stability and Activity'. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, 81 :233-240 [Details]
2001 'Location of Crosslinks in Chemically Stabilized Horseradish Peroxidase. Implications for Design of Crosslinks'
A-M O'Brien, C Ó'Fágáin, PF Nielsen & KG Welinder. (2001) 'Location of Crosslinks in Chemically Stabilized Horseradish Peroxidase. Implications for Design of Crosslinks'. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, 76 :277-284 [Details]
2000 'Stability studies on the cathepsin L proteinase of the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica'
Dowd AJ Dooley M Ó'Fágáin C Dalton JP (2000) 'Stability studies on the cathepsin L proteinase of the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 27 :599-604 [Details]
2000 'Dye bleaching and phenol precipitation by phthalic anhydride-modified horseradish peroxidase'
O'Brien A-M Ó'Fágáin C (2000) 'Dye bleaching and phenol precipitation by phthalic anhydride-modified horseradish peroxidase'. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 75 :363-368 [Details]
1998 'Chemically stabilized trypsin used in dipeptide synthesis'
A Murphy & C Ó'Fágáin. (1998) 'Chemically stabilized trypsin used in dipeptide synthesis'. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, 58 :366-373 [Details]
1997 'Dipeptide synthesis using acetylated trypsin derivative'
A Murphy & C Ó'Fágáin. (1997) 'Dipeptide synthesis using acetylated trypsin derivative'. BIOTECHNOLOGY TECHNIQUES, 11 :13-16 [Details]
1997 'Activity and stability of native and modified alanine aminotransferase in cosolvent systems and denaturants'
J Moreno & C Ó'Fágáin. (1997) 'Activity and stability of native and modified alanine aminotransferase in cosolvent systems and denaturants'. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR CATALYSIS B-ENZYMATIC, 2 :271-279 [Details]
1996 'Chemical stabilization of recombinant horseradish peroxidase'
A-M O'Brien & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Chemical stabilization of recombinant horseradish peroxidase'. BIOTECHNOLOGY TECHNIQUES, 10 :905-910 [Details]
1996 'Stabilization of alanine aminotransferase by consecutive modification and immobilization'
J Moreno & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Stabilization of alanine aminotransferase by consecutive modification and immobilization'. BIOTECHNOLOGY LETTERS, 18 :51-56 [Details]
1996 'Immobilization of alanine aminotransferase by covalent binding and entrapment'
J Moreno & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Immobilization of alanine aminotransferase by covalent binding and entrapment'. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY, 23 :231-235 [Details]
1996 'Modification of horseradish peroxidase with bifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide esters: effects on molecular stability'
E Miland, MR Smyth & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Modification of horseradish peroxidase with bifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide esters: effects on molecular stability'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 19 :242-249 [Details]
1996 'Stability characteristics of chemically modified soluble trypsin'
A Murphy & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Stability characteristics of chemically modified soluble trypsin'. JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, 49 :163-171 [Details]
1996 'Phenol removal by modified peroxidases'
E Miland, MR Smyth & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Phenol removal by modified peroxidases'. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 67 :227-236 [Details]
1996 'Increased thermal and solvent tolerance of acetylated horseradish peroxidases'
E Miland, MR Smyth & C Ó'Fágáin. (1996) 'Increased thermal and solvent tolerance of acetylated horseradish peroxidases'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 19 :63-67 [Details]
1995 'Effects of chemical modifiers on recombinant Factor VIII activity'
F Manning, C Ó'Fágáin, R O'Kennedy & B Woodhams. (1995) 'Effects of chemical modifiers on recombinant Factor VIII activity'. THROMBOSIS RESEARCH, 80 :247-254 [Details]
1995 'Chemical derivatives of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase showing increased stability'
C Besson, G Favre-Bonvin, C Ó'Fágáin & JM Wallach. (1995) 'Chemical derivatives of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase showing increased stability'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 17 :877-881 [Details]
1994 'Thermostabilized chemical derivatives of horseradish peroxidase'
O Ryan, MR Smyth & C Ó'Fágáin. (1994) 'Thermostabilized chemical derivatives of horseradish peroxidase'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 16 :501-505 [Details]
1991 'Stability of alanine aminotransferase is enhanced by chemical modification'
C Ó'Fágáin, R O'Kennedy & CG Kilty. (1991) 'Stability of alanine aminotransferase is enhanced by chemical modification'. ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 13 :234-239 [Details]
1989 'The serology of delta hepatitis and the detection of IgM anti-HD by EIA'
A Shattock, M Morris, K Kinane & C Fagan. (1989) 'The serology of delta hepatitis and the detection of IgM anti-HD by EIA'. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 23 :233-240 [Details]
1983 'The effect of pH on the kinetics of arylsulphatase A'
C Ó'Fágáin, B Butler & T Mantle. (1983) 'The effect of pH on the kinetics of arylsulphatase A'. BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 213 :606-607 [Details]
1982 'The slow kinetic transients of arylsulphatase A'
C Ó'Fágáin, U Bond, B Orsi & T Mantle. (1982) 'The slow kinetic transients of arylsulphatase A'. BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 201 :345-352 [Details]

Other Journals

  Year Publication
2003 'Review of Peptides: chemistry and biology. N Sewald & H-D Jakubke. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2002'
Ciaran O'Fagain (2003) 'Review of Peptides: chemistry and biology. N Sewald & H-D Jakubke. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2002' http://www.biochemist.org/reviews/page.htm?item=462, * :*-*. [Details]
2003 'The Membrane Dissected. Review of 'Biophysical Chemistry: membranes and proteins' R Templer & R Leatherbarrow, eds. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002'
Ciaran O'Fagain (2003) 'The Membrane Dissected. Review of 'Biophysical Chemistry: membranes and proteins' R Templer & R Leatherbarrow, eds. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002' Chemistry & Industry, * :21-21. [Details]
1999 'Peptide synthesis using modified trypsin'
S Green & C Ó'Fágáin. (1999) 'Peptide synthesis using modified trypsin' Biochemical Society Transactions, 27 :727-730. [Details]

Conference Contributions

  Year Publication
2012 ProStab2012: 9th International Conference on Protein Stabilisation,
Loughran NB; O'Connell MJ; O'Connor B; Ó'Fágáin, C. (2012) Stability properties of an ancient plant peroxidase. [Conference Organising Committee Member], ProStab2012: 9th International Conference on Protein Stabilisation, Lisbon, Portugal , 02-MAY-12 - 04-MAY-12 [Details]
2011 The University and Economic Recovery: Role of Technology, Enterprise and Learning Approaches,
Fagan, C. (2011) Research and Teaching in DCU's School of Biotechnology. [], The University and Economic Recovery: Role of Technology, Enterprise and Learning Approaches, Dublin City University , 25-OCT-11 - 26-OCT-11 [Details]
2009 US/Ireland Emerging Technologies Conference, Lowell, MA, USA, Oct 19-20 2009,
FAGAN, Ciaran (2009) Better enzymes for biosensors. [], US/Ireland Emerging Technologies Conference, Lowell, MA, USA, Oct 19-20 2009, UMass Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA , 19-OCT-09 - 20-OCT-09 [Details]
2009 ProStab2009, April 14 - 17, 2009 8th International Conference on Protein Stabilisation,
B Ryan & C Fagan (2009) Probing peroxidase with new tools and old. [], ProStab2009, April 14 - 17, 2009 8th International Conference on Protein Stabilisation, Graz, Austria , 14-APR-09 - 17-APR-09 [Details]
2009 Protein Engineering Club, Conway Institute, UCD,
B Ryan, N Carolan & C Ó'Fágáin (2009) Some Ups and Downs with Horseradish and Soybean Peroxidases. [], Protein Engineering Club, Conway Institute, UCD, Dublin, Ireland , 30-JAN-09 - 30-JAN-09 [Details]
2004 ProStab2004: 6th International Conference on Protein Stabilization,
Neil Carolan & Ciarán Ó'Fágáin (2004) Chemical Modification of Soybean Peroxidase Glycans. [], ProStab2004: 6th International Conference on Protein Stabilization, Bratislava, Slovakia , 26-SEP-04 - 29-SEP-04 [Details]
2001 EuropaCat IV,
S Colleary & C Ó'Fágáin. (2001) Formylation of porcine trypsin. [], EuropaCat IV, Limerick, Ireland , 02-SEP-01 - 06-SEP-01 [Details]
2000 2nd International Conference on Protein Stabilization/ Biomolecule Stabilization,
D O'Brien & C Ó'Fágáin. (2000) pH stability of chemically modified horseradish peroxidase. [], 2nd International Conference on Protein Stabilization/ Biomolecule Stabilization, Lisbon, Portugal , 09-APR-00 - 12-APR-00 [Details]
1998 Stability and Stabilization of Biocatalysts. European Federation of Biotechnology Symposium,
U McKeon, BF O'Connor & C Ó'Fágáin. (1998) Stability properties of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. In: Ballesteros A, Plou FJ, Iborra JL & Halling PJ (eds). Stability and Stabilization of Biocatalysts. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 47-52. ISBN 0 444 82970 9. [Other], Stability and Stabilization of Biocatalysts. European Federation of Biotechnology Symposium, Cordoba, Spain , 19-APR-98 - 22-APR-98 [Details]

Professional Associations

  Association Function From / To
NUIG, UCD, Univ Limerick, Univ Leeds. Extern examiner of 5 PhD, 5 MSc theses / 14-NOV-16

Committees

  Committee Function From / To
JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR CATALYSIS B-ENZYMATIC Editorial Board member & reviewer 2008 / 2011
ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY Editorial Board member 2007 / 2010

Research Interests

Dr. Ciarán Fagan seeks to improve the stability of enzymes.
Enzymes are ideal “green” catalysts: they can enable newer processes that are less hazardous and less costly than traditional methods, while producing less waste.
Enzymes’ many industrial applications range from detergents to the food and (bio)pharma industries. Unfortunately, enzymes may become unstable and lose their catalytic abilities under the demands of process conditions, or upon prolonged use or extended storage.
Dr. Fagan uses two main strategies to increase the stability of enzymes, namely protein engineering and chemical modification. He has prepared enzymes that are more tolerant of heat, organic solvents or oxidizing conditions, or that give improved biosensor performance.
Although he has worked on numerous enzymes, his special focus is on plant peroxidases (which are used for a variety of purposes). These, together with a “resurrected” ancient plant peroxidase, an evolutionary precursor of the modern-day enzymes, provide opportunities for postgraduate research.
See a selection of publications at
http://doras.dcu.ie/view/people/=D3_F=E1g=E1in=3ACiar=E1n=3A=3A.html




Research Projects

  Title Funder From - To Role Award
Discovery of industrially relevant oxidoreductase enzymes [Kezia Rajan] Irish Research Council 01-OCT-17 - 30-SEP-19 DCU PI 47,510.00
COMBIO - Composite Materials for the Immobilisation of Biocatalysts European Framework Programme 6 01-OCT-06 - 30-SEP-08 DCU PI 237,798.00

Modules Coordinated

  Term (ID)) Title Link Subject
2020 Basic Sciences for Engineering FSH104Basic Sciences for Engineering
2020 Proteins, Proteomics & Biopharma BE402Proteins, Proteomics & Biopharma
2020 Environmental Monitoring & Forensic Biology FSH301Environmental Monitoring & Forensic Biology
2020 Practical Biochemistry Laboratory BE261Practical Biochemistry Laboratory
2020 The Biotech Industry BE209The Biotech Industry