Robert O'Connor

Dr.

Profile Photo
Dr. Robert O’Connor graduated with a BSc. in Applied Physics from Dublin City University in 2001 and a PhD in Semiconductor Physics from the same institution in 2005, which focused on the characterization of advanced materials for ultra-large scale complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes.
In 2006 he worked at Intel Ireland as a process engineer, during which time he was awarded a Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship to work at IMEC, Belgium on electrical characterization of high-k dielectric materials. Following this, in 2009 he secured an Irish Research Council EMBARK Fellowship to continue his research on the characterisation of dielectric materials for future CMOS technologies. The project, which received follow-up funding from the Science Foundation Ireland ‘FORME’ Strategic Research Cluster, focused on the characterisation of the interfacial region in MOSFET devices with high-k dielectrics and group III-V high mobility substrates in collaboration with Intel.
In 2012 he joined the academic staff at Dublin City University in the School of Physical Sciences and has been awarded several research grants including an SFI TIDA award that funded research on the development of novel materials for solar water splitting to yield hydrogen fuel. This grant has led to follow on funding from the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland and Enterprise Ireland and he is currently leading a 4-year project in this area.
He also collaborates with scientists at Trinity College Dublin on an SFI funded SPOKE project which is focused on the development of block-copolymers for area selective deposition, and with researchers at IMEC, Belgium on the characterisation of self-assembled monolayers also with a focus on their potential in the area selective deposition field.

Conference Publication

Year Publication
2019 Gorji N.;O'Connor R.;Brabazon D. (2019) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering XPS, XRD, and SEM characterization of the virgin and recycled metallic powders for 3D printing applications
2018 A. Brady-Boyd ; R. O'Connor ; S. Armini ; S. Selvaraju ; G. Hughes ; J. Bogan (2018) 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO) Characterisation of Electroless Deposited Cobalt by Hard and Soft X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy
2015 Bogan, J and McCoy, AP and Byrne, C and O'Connor, R and Hughes, G (2015) Interconnect Technology Conference and 2015 IEEE Materials for Advanced Metallization Conference (IITC/MAM), 2015 IEEE International Atomic oxygen treatment of carbon containing low-k dielectric materials to facilitate manganese silicate barrier formation
2014 Bogan, J and McCoy, AP and Casey, P and O'Connor, R and Byrne, C and Hughes, G (2014) Interconnect Technology Conference/Advanced Metallization Conference (IITC/AMC), 2014 IEEE International Photoemission study of the impact of carbon content on Mn silicate barrier formation on low-k dielectric materials
2011 Kauerauf, T.;Degraeve, R.;Ragnarsson, L.-Å.;Roussel, P.;Sahhaf, S.;Groeseneken, G.;O'Connor, R.; (2011) IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings Methodologies for sub-1nm EOT TDDB evaluation
2010 O'Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Kauerauf, Thomas and Ragnarsson, Lars-\AAke (2010) Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2010 IEEE International Time dependent dielectric breakdown and stress induced leakage current characteristics of 8\AA EOT HfO 2 N-MOSFETS
2010 O'Connor, R.;Hughes, G.;Kauerauf, T.;Ragnarsson, L.-A.; (2010) IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings Time dependent dielectric breakdown and stress induced leakage current characteristics of 8Å EOT HfO2 N-MOSFETS
2009 O'Connor, Robert and Aoulaiche, Marc and Pantisano, Luigi and Shickova, Adelina and Degraeve, Robin and Kaczer, Ben and Groeseneken, Guido (2009) Reliability Physics Symposium, 2009 IEEE International The role of nitrogen in HfSiON defect passivation
2009 Sahhaf, Sahar and Degraeve, Robin and O'Connor, Robert and Kaczer, Ben and Zahid, MB and Roussel, Ph J and Pantisano, Luigi and Groeseneken, Guido (2009) Reliability Physics Symposium, 2009 IEEE International Evidence of a new degradation mechanism in high-k dielectrics at elevated temperatures
2008 O'Connor, Robert and Chang, Vincent S and Pantisano, Luigi and Ragnarsson, Lars-Ake and Aoulaiche, Marc and O'Sullivan, Barry and Adelmann, Christoph and Van Elshocht, Sven and Lehnen, Peer and Yu, HongYu and others (2008) Reliability Physics Symposium, 2008. IRPS 2008. IEEE International Anomalous positive-bias temperature instability of high-$\kappa$/metal gate nMOSFET devices with Dy 2 O 3 capping
2008 O'Connor, R.;Chang, V.S.;Pantisano, L.;Ragnarsson, L.-A.;Aoulaiche, M.;O'Sullivan, B.;Adelmann, C.;Van Elshocht, S.;Lehnen, P.;Yu, H.;Groeseneken, G.; (2008) IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings Anomalous positive-bias temperature instability of high-k/metal gate nMOSFET devices with Dy2O3 capping
2008 Kaczer, B.;Grasser, T.;Roussel, Ph.J.;Martin-Martinez, J.;O'Connor, R.;O'Sullivan, B.J.;Groeseneken, G.; (2008) IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings Ubiquitous relaxation in BTI stressing-new evaluation and insights
2008 O'Connor, Robert and Pantisano, Luigi and Degraeve, Robin and Kauerauf, Thomas and Kaczer, Ben and Roussel, Ph J and Groeseneken, Guido (2008) Reliability Physics Symposium, 2008. IRPS 2008. IEEE International SILC defect generation spectroscopy in HfSiON using constant voltage stress and substrate hot electron injection
2008 Kaczer, Ben and Grasser, Tibor and Roussel, J and Martin-Martinez, Javier and O'Connor, Robert and O'sullivan, BJ and Groeseneken, Guido (2008) Reliability Physics Symposium, 2008. IRPS 2008. IEEE International Ubiquitous relaxation in BTI stressing—New evaluation and insights
2008 O'Connor, R.;Pantisano, L.;Degraeve, R.;Kauerauf, T.;Kaczer, B.;Roussel, Ph.J.;Groeseneken, G.; (2008) IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings SILC defect generation spectroscopy in HfSiON using constant voltage stress and substrate hot electron injection
2007 Chang, VS and Ragnarsson, L-A and Pourtois, G and O'Connor, R and Adelmann, C and Van Elshocht, S and Delabie, Annelies and Swerts, J and Van der Heyden, N and Conard, T and others (2007) Electron Devices Meeting, 2007. IEDM 2007. IEEE International A Dy 2 O 3-capped HfO 2 Dielectric and TaC x-based Metals Enabling Low-V t Single-Metal-Single-Dielectric Gate Stack
2007 Grasser, T and Kaczer, B and Hehenberger, Ph and Gos, W and O'connor, R and Reisinger, H and Gustin, W and Schlunder, C (2007) Electron Devices Meeting, 2007. IEDM 2007. IEEE International Simultaneous extraction of recoverable and permanent components contributing to bias-temperature instability
2007 Petry, J and Singanamalla, R and Xiong, K and Ravit, C and Simoen, E and O'Connor, R and Veloso, A and Adelmann, C and Van Elshocht, S and Paraschiv, V and others (2007) Electron Devices Meeting, 2007. IEDM 2007. IEEE International Tuning PMOS Mo (O, N) metal gates to NMOS by addition of DyO capping layer
2007 Chang, V.S.;Ragnarsson, L.-Å.;Pourtois, G.;O'Connor, R.;Adelmann, C.;Van Elshocht, S.;Delabie, A.;Swerts, J.;Van Der Heyden, N.;Conard, T.;Cho, H.-J.;Akheyar, A.;Mitsuhashi, R.;Witters, T.;O'Sullivan, B.J.;Pantisano, L.;Rohr, E.;Lehnen, P.;Kubicek, S.;Schram, T.;De Gendt, S.;Absil, P.P.;Biesemans, S.; (2007) Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM A Dy2O3-capped HfO2 dielectric and TaCx-based metals enabling low-Vt single-metal-single- dielectric gate stack
2007 O’Sullivan, BJ and Mitsuhashi, R and Pourtois, G and Chang, VS and Adelmann, C and Schram, T and Ragnarsson, L\AA and Van der Heyden, N and Cho, HJ and Harada, Y and others (2007) Extended abstracts of the... Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials Oxygen-Vacancy-Induced Vt shift in La-containing Devices
2007 Petry, J.;Singanamalla, R.;Xiong, K.;Ravit, C.;Simoen, E.;O'Connor, R.;Veloso, A.;Adelmann, C.;Van Elshocht, S.;Paraschiv, V.;Brus, S.;Van Berkum, J.;Kubicek, S.;De Meyer, K.;Biesemans, S.;Hooker, J.C.; (2007) Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Tuning PMOS Mo(O,N) metal gates to NMOS by addition of DyO capping layer
2007 Grasser, T.;Kaczer, B.;Hehenberger, P.;Gös, W.;O'Connor, R.;Reisinger, H.;Gustin, W.;Schlünder, C.; (2007) Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Simultaneous extraction of recoverable and permanent components contributing to bias-temperature instability
2004 Kaczer, Ben and Degraeve, Robin and O'Connor, Robert and Roussel, Philippe and Groeseneken, Guido (2004) Electron Devices Meeting, 2004. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International Implications of progressive wear-out for lifetime extrapolation of ultra-thin (EOT/spl sim/1 nm) SiON films
2004 Kaczer, B.;Degraeve, R.;O'Connor, R.;Roussel, Ph.;Groeseneken, G.; (2004) Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Implications of progressive wear-out for lifetime extrapolation of ultra-thin (EOT - 1 nm) SiON films
2003 Veloso, A and Cubaynes, FN and Rothschild, A and Mertens, S and Degraeve, R and O'Connor, R and Olsen, C and Date, L and Schaekers, M and Dachs, C and others (2003) European Solid-State Device Research, 2003. ESSDERC'03. 33rd Conference on Ultra-thin oxynitride gate dielectrics by pulsed-RF DPN for 65 nm general purpose CMOS applications
2003 Veloso, A.;Cubaynes, F.N.;Rothschild, A.;Mertens, S.;Degraeve, R.;O'Connor, R.;Olsen, C.;Date, L.;Schaekers, M.;Dachs, C.;Jurczak, M.; (2003) European Solid-State Device Research Conference Ultra-thin oxynitride gate dielectrics by pulsed-RF DPN for 65 nm general purpose CMOS applications

Peer Reviewed Journal

Year Publication
2020 Snelgrove M.;McFeely C.;Mani-Gonzalez P.G.;Lahtonen K.;Lundy R.;Hughes G.;Valden M.;McGlynn E.;Yadav P.;Saari J.;Morris M.A.;O'Connor R. (2020) 'Aluminium oxide formation via atomic layer deposition using a polymer brush mediated selective infiltration approach'. Applied Surface Science, 515 .
2020 Gorji N.E.;Saxena P.;Corfield M.;Clare A.;Rueff J.P.;Bogan J.;González P.G.M.;Snelgrove M.;Hughes G.;O'Connor R.;Raghavendra R.;Brabazon D. (2020) 'A new method for assessing the recyclability of powders within Powder Bed Fusion process'. Materials Characterization, 161 .
2020 Mani-Gonzalez P.G.;Snelgrove M.;Rueff J.P.;Lundy R.;Yadav P.;Bogan J.;O'Connor R.;Morris M.;Hughes G. (2020) 'Analysis of Al and Cu salt infiltration into a poly 2-vinylpyridine (P2vP) polymer layer for area selective deposition applications'. Journal of Physics D - Applied Physics, 53 (11).
2020 Zyulkov I;Madhiwala V;Voronina E;Snelgrove M;Bogan J;O'Connor R;De Gendt S;Armini S; (2020) 'Area-Selective ALD of Ru on Nanometer-Scale Cu Lines through Dimerization of Amino-Functionalized Alkoxy Silane Passivation Films'. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 12 (4).
2019 Gorji, N.E.;O'Connor, R.;Mussatto, A.;Snelgrove, M.;González, P.G.M.;Brabazon, D.; (2019) 'Recyclability of stainless steel (316 L) powder within the additive manufacturing process'. Materialia, .
2019 M. Snelgrove, P. G. Mani-González, J. Bogan, R. Lundy, J. P. Rueff, G. Hughes, P. Kumar Yadav, E. McGlynn, M. Morris, R. O’Connor (2019) 'Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Copper Formation by Metal Salt Inclusion in a Polymer Film'. Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics, 52 :435301-1-435301-9.
2019 M. Snelgrove, C. Zehe, R. Lundy, P. K. Yadiv, J.-R. Pascal, R. O’Connor, J. Bogan, G. Hughes, E. McGlynn, M. Morris, P.G. Mani-Gonzalez (2019) 'Surface Characterization of Poly 2-Vinylpyridine - A Polymer for Area Selective Deposition Techniques'. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A-Vacuum Surface, 37 :050601-1-050601-5.
2018 Bogan J.;Brady-Boyd A.;Armini S.;Lundy R.;Selvaraju V.;O'Connor R. (2018) 'Nucleation and adhesion of ultra-thin copper films on amino-terminated self-assembled monolayers'. Applied Surface Science, 462 :38-47.
2018 Bogen, J;Selvaraju, V;Brady-Boyd, A;Hughes, G;O'Connor, R (2018) 'Synchrotron radiation study of metallic titanium deposited on dielectric substrates'. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, 36 .
2018 Flynn, S.P.;Bogan, J.;Lundy, R.;Khalafalla, K.E.;Shaw, M.;Rodriguez, B.J.;Swift, P.;Daniels, S.;O'Connor, R.;Hughes, G.;Kelleher, S.M.; (2018) 'Nitrogen reactive ion etch processes for the selective removal of poly-(4-vinylpyridine) in block copolymer films'. Nanotechnology, .
2018 Brady-Boyd, A and O’Connor, R and Armini, S and Selvaraju, V and Hughes, G and Bogan, J (2018) 'On the use of (3-trimethoxysilylpropyl) diethylenetriamine self-assembled monolayers as seed layers for the growth of Mn based copper diffusion barrier layers'. 427 :260-266.
2018 Selvaraju V.;Brady-Boyd A.;O'Connor R.;Hughes G.;Bogan J. (2018) 'Investigation of nitrogen incorporation into manganese based copper diffusion barrier layers for future interconnect applications'. Surfaces And Interfaces, 13 :133-138.
2018 Flynn, SP;Bogan, J;Lundy, R;Khalafalla, KE;Shaw, M;Rodriguez, BJ;Swift, P;Daniels, S;O'Connor, R;Hughes, G;Kelleher, SM (2018) 'Nitrogen reactive ion etch processes for the selective removal of poly-(4-vinylpyridine) in block copolymer films'. Nanotechnology, 29 .
2016 Bogan, J and Lundy, Ross and P. McCoy, A and O'Connor, R and Byrne, C and Walsh, L and Casey, P and Hughes, G (2016) 'In-situ surface and interface study of atomic oxygen modified carbon containing porous low-$\kappa$ dielectric films for barrier layer applications'. 120 (10).
2016 O'Connor, Robert and Bogan, Justin and McCoy, Anthony and Byrne, Conor and Hughes, Greg (2016) 'A photoemission study of the effectiveness of nickel, manganese, and cobalt based corrosion barriers for silicon photo-anodes during water oxidation'. 119 (19).
2015 O’Connor, Robert and Bogan, Justin and Fleck, Nicole and McCoy, Anthony and Walsh, Lee A and Byrne, Conor and Casey, Patrick and Hughes, Greg (2015) 'Growth and characterization of thin manganese oxide corrosion barrier layers for silicon photoanode protection during water oxidation'. 136 :64-69.
2015 McCoy, AP and Bogan, J and Walsh, L and Byrne, C and O’Connor, R and Woicik, JC and Hughes, G (2015) 'The impact of porosity on the formation of manganese based copper diffusion barrier layers on low-$\kappa$ dielectric materials'. 48 (32).
2014 Bogan, J and McCoy, AP and O’Connor, R and Casey, P and Byrne, C and Hughes, G (2014) 'Photoemission study of the identification of Mn silicate barrier formation on carbon containing low-$\kappa$ dielectrics'. 130 :46-51.
2013 Casey, Patrick and McCoy, Anthony P and Bogan, Justin and Byrne, Conor and Walsh, Lee and O’Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg (2013) 'In Situ Investigations into the Mechanism of Oxygen Catalysis on Ruthenium/Manganese Surfaces and the Thermodynamic Stability of Ru/Mn-Based Copper Diffusion Barrier Layers'. 117 (31):16136-16143.
2013 O’Connor, Robert and Kauerauf, Thomas and Arimura, Hiroaki and Ragnarsson, Lars-Ake (2013) 'Stress induced defect generation implications of doping HfO2 with Al'. 109 :54-56.
2011 O'Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Kauerauf, Thomas (2011) 'Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown and Stress-Induced Leakage Current Characteristics of 0.7-nm-EOT $$\backslash$hbox $$HfO$\$ \_ $$2$\$ $ pFETs'. 11 (2):290-294.
2011 O’Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Kauerauf, Thomas and Ragnarsson, Lars-Ake (2011) 'Reliability of thin ZrO2 gate dielectric layers'. 51 (6):1118-1122.
2011 O’Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg (2011) 'The effect of a post processing thermal anneal on pre-existing and stress induced electrically active defects in ultra-thin SiON dielectric layers'. 51 (3):524-528.
2011 O'Connor, R.;Hughes, G.;Kauerauf, T.;Ragnarsson, L.-A.; (2011) 'Reliability of thin ZrO2 gate dielectric layers'. Microelectronics Reliability, .
2010 O’Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Casey, Patrick and Newcomb, Simon B (2010) 'Degradation and breakdown characteristics of thin MgO dielectric layers'. 107 (2).
2009 Pantisano, Luigi and Trojman, Lionel and Aoulaiche, Marc and O'Connor, R and Kaczer, Ben and Groeseneken, Guido (2009) 'Understanding and Importance of Defects in Advanced Materials'. 18 (1):651-658.
2009 Aoulaiche, M.;Kaczer, B.;Roussel, Ph.J.;O'Connor, R.;Houssa, M.;De Gendt, S.;Maes, H.E.;Groeseneken, G.; (2009) 'Impact of nitridation on recoverable and permanent negative bias temperature instability degradation in high-k /metal-gate p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors'. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, .
2009 Aoulaiche, Marc and Kaczer, Ben and Roussel, Ph J and O’Connor, Rob and Houssa, Michel and De Gendt, Stefan and Maes, HE and Groeseneken, Guido (2009) 'Impact of nitridation on recoverable and permanent negative bias temperature instability degradation in high-k/metal-gate p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors'. 27 (1):463-467.
2008 O'Connor, R.;Chang, V.S.;Pantisano, L.;Ragnarsson, L.-A.;Aoulaiche, M.;O'Sullivan, B.;Groeseneken, G.; (2008) 'Anomalous positive-bias temperature instability of high- κ /metal gate devices with Dy2 O3 capping'. Applied Physics Letters, .
2008 O'Connor, R.;Pantisano, L.;Degraeve, R.;Kauerauf, T.;Kaczer, B.;Roussel, P.;Groeseneken, G.; (2008) 'Electron energy dependence of defect generation in high- k gate stacks'. Journal of Applied Physics, .
2008 O’Connor, Robert and Chang, Vincent S and Pantisano, Luigi and Ragnarsson, Lars-\AAke and Aoulaiche, Marc and O’Sullivan, Barry and Groeseneken, Guido (2008) 'Anomalous positive-bias temperature instability of high-$\kappa$/metal gate devices with Dy 2 O 3 capping'. 93 (5).
2008 Zahid, Mohammed B and Pantisano, Luigi and Degraeve, Robin and Aoulaiche, M and Trojman, L and Ferain, I and San Andres, E and Shickova, A and O'Connor, R and Groeseneken, Guido and others (2008) 'Trapping in 1nm EOT high-k/MG'. 16 (5):77-84.
2008 O’Connor, Robert and Pantisano, Luigi and Degraeve, Robin and Kauerauf, Thomas and Kaczer, Ben and Roussel, Phillipe and Groeseneken, Guido (2008) 'Electron energy dependence of defect generation in high-k gate stacks'. 103 (6).
2006 O’Connor, R and McDonnell, S and Hughes, G and Smith, KE (2006) 'Photoemission studies of pulsed-RF plasma nitrided ultra-thin SiON dielectric layers'. 600 (3):532-536.
2006 O’Connor, R and Hughes, G and Glans, P-A and Learmonth, T and Smith, KE (2006) 'X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption studies of Hf-silicate dielectric layers'. 253 (5):2770-2775.
2005 O'Connor, Robert and McDonnell, Stephen and Hughes, Greg and Degraeve, Robin and Kauerauf, Thomas (2005) 'Low voltage stress-induced leakage current in 1.4--2.1 nm SiON and HfSiON gate dielectric layers'. 20 (8).
2005 O’Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Degraeve, Robin and Kaczer, Ben (2005) 'Charge trapping in MOSFETs with HfSiON dielectrics during electrical stressing'. 77 (3-4):302-309.
2005 O’Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Degraeve, Robin and Kaczer, Ben (2005) 'Progressive breakdown in ultrathin SiON dielectrics and its effect on transistor performance'. 45 (5-6):869-874.
2005 O'Connor, R.;Hughes, G.;Degraeve, R.;Kaczer, B.; (2005) 'Progressive breakdown in ultrathin SiON dielectrics and its effect on transistor performance'. Microelectronics Reliability, .
2004 O'Connor, Robert and Degraeve, Robin and Kaczer, Ben and Veloso, Anabela and Hughes, Greg and Groeseneken, Guido (2004) 'Weibull slope and voltage acceleration of ultra-thin (1.1--1.45 nm EOT) oxynitrides'. 72 (1-4):61-65.
2004 O'Connor, R.;Degraeve, R.;Kaczer, B.;Veloso, A.;Hughes, G.;Groeseneken, G.; (2004) 'Weibull slope and voltage acceleration of ultra-thin (1.1-1.45 nm EOT) oxynitrides'. Microelectronic Engineering, .
2004 O'Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Degraeve, Robin and Kaczer, Ben (2004) 'Temperature-accelerated breakdown in ultra-thin SiON dielectrics'. 19 (11).
2004 O'Connor, Robert and Hughes, Greg and Degraeve, Robin and Kaczer, Ben and Kauerauf, Thomas (2004) 'Reliability of HfSiON gate dielectrics'. 20 (1).
Certain data included herein are derived from the © Web of Science (2021) of Clarivate. All rights reserved.

Research Interests

Robert’s research interests lie in interface chemistry and thin film characterisation. Understanding the interfaces between materials is key in thin film technologies that underpin semiconductor based manufacturing and energy harvesting technologies. His lab uses x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with thin film deposition techniques in order to characterise surface reactions between a wide range or metals, oxides, semiconductor, and organic materials. The group also makes regular trips to European synchrotron facilities. He currently supervises 5 postgraduate students across a range of projects including photo-electrochemical water splitting and area-selective deposition. He is also the designated tool owner for a new state-of-the-art integrated atomic later deposition – x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tool which DCU has recently acquired.

Current Postgraduate Students

Student Name Degree Supervision
Shiel ,Kyle MSc Supervisor
Mc Feely ,Caitlin PhD-track Supervisor
O Donnell ,Shane PhD-track Supervisor

Modules Coordinated

Term Title Subject
2021 Motion and Energy PS101
2022 Final Year Project PS451
2020 Solid State Physics I PS204
2022 Semiconductor Physics I PS305
2021 Physics Laboratory I PS151