Supporting the consistent implementation of self-evaluation in Irish post-primary schools
O’Brien S.;McNamara G.;O’Hara J. (2015) 'Supporting the consistent implementation of self-evaluation in Irish post-primary schools'. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 27 (4):377-393 [DOI] [Details]
This paper explores approaches to support the consistent implementation of school self-evaluation. The first part of the paper outlines the changing nature of self-evaluation in Irish post-primary schools and how a new approach introduced by the Department of Education and Skills in 2012 demonstrates real intentionality in terms of implementation. This recent attempt to engage schools in self-evaluation is compared to a previous self-evaluation initiative introduced in 2003. Despite significant improvements to the self-evaluation process, a number of concerns remain particularly in relation to the capacity of schools to engage in the process and the limited level of support that is provided to schools. The question of how best to support the implementation of self-evaluation is a concern in many jurisdictions. This question was explored in research carried out on the implementation of self-evaluation in Centres for Education in Ireland, and the findings are outlined in the second part of the paper. The research highlights a relatively high level of implementation of self-evaluation in Centres for Education nationally as well as generally positive feedback on the self-evaluation experience from participants. Some of the factors that influenced successful implementation are outlined. Key among these is the facilitator-led approach, addressing the practicalities of implementation and the national monitoring system. While this research did not involve post-primary schools, the findings may have relevance for the provision of supports in post-primary schools in Ireland, and it may also have a wider application for self-evaluation policy and practice in other jurisdictions.
From Inspection to Quality: Ways in which school inspection influences change in schools
Gustafsson J.;Ehren M.;Conyngham G.;McNamara G.;Altrichter H.;O'Hara J. (2015) 'From inspection to quality: Ways in which school inspection influences change in schools'. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 47 :47-57 [DOI] [Details]
Inspection is employed by most European education systems as an instrument for controlling and promoting the quality of schools. Yet there is little research knowledge about how inspection drives the improvement of schools. The study reports on surveys to principals in primary and secondary education in six European countries to attempt to clarify how school inspection impacts on the improvement of schools. Based on an analysis of principals’ perceptions the evidence suggests that inspection primarily drives change indirectly, through encouraging certain developmental processes, rather than through more direct coercive methods. Inspectorates that set clear expectations and standards have an impact on the increased utilization of self-evaluation and on developing the capacity of schools to improve in a variety of ways.
Re-Thinking Assessment: Self- and Peer-Assessment as Drivers of Self-Direction in Learning
Harrison,K.,O Hara, J. and McNamara.G. (2015) 'Re-Thinking Assessment: Self- and Peer-Assessment as Drivers of Self-Direction in Learning'. EURASIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 60 :75-88 [Details]
This paper focuses on assessment in Irish education, which, despite best intentions, shepherds students through the process to an extent that the individual is prone to undervalue her/his ability to trust in the self as a rational, self-thinking individual. In Ireland’s assessment system lies the paradox whereby from childhood the learner develops the habit of depending on ‘authority’ (teacher/examiner) to assess their work, with the expectation that the learner will graduate a self-reliant, achieving person.
New languages of possibility: early experiments in education as dissent
This paper reviews the work of four early radical educators: the cultural nationalist Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), Asia’s first Nobel Laureate; Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), Cambridge mathematician and philosopher; the Irish educationalist and insurgent Patrick Pearse (1879–1916) and Leonard Elmhirst (1893–1975), co-founder of Dartington Hall school in England. Each represents a type of radicalism that is particular to his own era but resonates in twentieth-century educational provision and policy. Each articulated his political vision through the establishment of a school and all contributed to modern pedagogical practice. The paper argues that ideological and methodological similarities not only compel us to consider them as radical founders, whose ideas are in many ways identical, but to identify them as pivotal theorists in early conceptualisations of education as dissent and disengagement, as a means of decoupling thought and habit from the mainstream of educational practice, colonial imposition or curricular conservatism. In particular, the paper concentrates upon the work of the Irish educationalist and political radical Patrick Pearse and, employing his educational writings and practice as a template for dissension, demonstrates that it was both typical of and reflected the wider tone of early formulations of education as dissent.
Changing school board governance in primary education through school inspections
Ehren,MCM., Honingh, ME., Hooge, EH and O Hara , J. (2016) 'Changing school board governance in primary education through school inspections'. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION (now EMAL), DOI 10.1177/1741143214549969 (44):205-223 [DOI] [Details]
This paper addresses if, and to what extent, the current working methods of the Dutch Inspectorate of Education affect the governance of school boards in schools for primary education. A key facet of the working method is the inspection meeting with the school board. Drawing upon a large quantitative study (n ¼ 244) we are able to identify some changes in school board governance due to these inspection meetings. School boards that had an inspection meeting indicate changes in their governance of quality assurance and data use, and in the amount of data that they collect on the functioning of their schools. School boards indicate very small amounts of activities with regard to the curriculum and instruction in their schools.
Critical facilitators: External supports for self-evaluation and improvement in schools
This paper explores approaches used to support schools to engage in self-evaluation for the purpose of improvement. General models of support are outlined which emphasise evaluation capacity building however the usefulness of this approach is questioned. Instead the role of the critical friend as a provider of external professional support is explored. An approach which emphasises facilitation and the engagement of an external professional to lead self-evaluation processes in schools is suggested with a view to making the process ‘easier’ and more ‘useful’. Research in relation to such an approach carried out in a range of educational contexts is presented. Implementation issues which will have relevance for schools, and for self-evaluation policy and practice in other jurisdictions are outlined.
Brendan J. Walsh (2014) ''Frankly and robustly national': Patrick Pearse, the Gaelic League and the campaign for Irish at the National University of Ireland. In Studies: An Irish Quaterly Review'. 103 :135-146 [Details]
Impact of school inspections on improvement of schools; describing assumptions on causal mechanisms in six European countries
Ehren M.;Altrichter H.;McNamara G.;O'Hara J. (2013) 'Impact of school inspections on improvement of schools-describing assumptions on causal mechanisms in six European countries'. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 25 (1):3-43 [DOI] [Details]
School inspection is used by most European education systems as a major instrument for controlling and promoting the quality of schools. Surprisingly, there is little research knowledge about how school inspections drive the improvement of schools and which types of approaches are most effective and cause the least unintended consequences. The study presented in this paper uses interviews with inspection officials and a document analysis to reconstruct the “program theories” (i.e. the assumptions on causal mechanisms, linking school inspections to their intended outcomes of improved teaching and learning) of Inspectorates of Education in six European countries.
The results section of the paper starts with a summary of the commonalities and differences of these six national inspection models with respect to standards and thresholds used, to types of feedback and reporting, and to the sanctions, rewards and interventions applied to motivate schools to improve. Next, the intermediate processes through which these inspection models are expected to promote good education (e.g. through actions of stakeholders) are explained. In the concluding section, these assumptions are critically discussed in the light of research knowledge.
From Looking at Our Schools (LAOS) to Whole School Evaluation -Management, Leadership and Learning (WSE-MLL): the evolution of inspection in Irish schools over the past decade
McNamara G.;O'Hara J. (2012) 'From looking at our schools (LAOS) to whole school evaluation -management, leadership and learning (WSE-MLL): The evolution of inspection in irish schools over the past decade'. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 24 (2):79-97 [DOI] [Details]
McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J.
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 24, 2, pp 79-97
This paper attempts to provide an overview of the key assumptions underpinning the Whole School Evaluation (WSE) inspection policy developed in Ireland since 2003. Beginning with a documentary analysis the paper argues that the capacity to generate useful self evaluative data in schools was seen as being at the heart of the model of school evaluation proposed by the Department of Education and Science. It further suggests that while the rhetoric of self evaluative capacity building has been key to the emerging system the lack of a meaningful structural response within schools means that this has remained aspirational. The latter part of the paper seeks to test this contention, examining the research base in the area of school evaluation and inspection in Ireland and conducting a number of targeted focus groups with school leaders. For the most part the initial contention is confirmed although there is a sense that there may be significant new pressures emerging in the near future that could cause the whole system to be revisited and perhaps be radically overhauled. An initial indicator of these potential changes can be seen in the emergence of a refined WSE Management, Leadership and Learning inspection policy which has yet to be widely implemented
Turning Knowledge into Money: Ireland's and Free-Markeet Alchemy
Brendan J. Walsh (2012) ''Turning Knowledge into Money: Ireland's Universities and Free-Markeet Alchemy''. STUDIES, vol.101 [Details]
Operationalising self-evaluation in schools: experiences from Ireland and Iceland
School inspection, school self-evaluation and the relationship between them are important themes in current educational policy debates. Many education systems are seeking to find a balance between the, at times, conflicting demands for a robust, transparent and effective system of school evaluation that at the same time allows for professional growth and development within schools. These tensions play out in different ways across different systems and this paper seeks to explore points of commonality and contrast between the Irish and Icelandic experience.
The paper begins by reporting research in Ireland which demonstrates that while self-evaluation is theoretically a key component of the national system of school evaluation, in reality there is little sign of it emerging in any significant way in practice in schools. In contrast, research from Iceland is reported which shows that, after a slow beginning, self-evaluation in schools is now bearing fruit in a variety of ways. From these diverse experiences, some conclusions are drawn concerning the conditions under which self-evaluation can become embedded in education systems.
Developing a Culture of Evaluation in the Irish Public Sector: The Case of Education
This article is a case study of the emergence of an evaluation culture in the public sector and particularly in education in Ireland. It suggests that the emergence of this culture was strongly influenced by external bodies, particularly the EU and, to a lesser but significant degree, the OECD. It is further argued that the continuation of systematic evaluation is still dependent on external forces, since a commitment to evaluation as a tool of governance has not taken hold among key policy-makers in Ireland. However it is postulated that, notwithstanding its arguably insecure foundations, evaluation practice has moved beyond the confines of externally funded EU programmes, which saw its first introduction into Ireland. In recent years a broad quality assurance agenda within the public service and to an extent beyond has emerged.The article concludes by making the point that an evaluation culture in a particular country is hugely contextualized and influenced by the constraints of existing ideologies and relationships between different interest groups.Thus, in Ireland, in line with the corporatist and partnership-driven approaches to economic policy and industrial relations which have been dominant in recent decades, the form of evaluation which has emerged is consensual, collaborative and negotiated.
The importance of the concept of self-evaluation in the changing landscape of education policy
Recent decades have witnessed a remarkable rise in the regulation of public services and servants, education being a case in point. External evaluation and inspection has been an important element of this trend. Increasingly, however as the limitations of external surveillance systems have become clear the concept of internal or self-evaluation has grown in importance. This paper explores the concept of self-evaluation in education and gives an account of some of the possibilities and problems associated with it. In particular it is argued that enabling individual schools and teachers to self-evaluate effectively is a complex task that will require help and support from the community of professional evaluators.
Selected Older Peer Reviewed Publications
Mc Namara, G., O Hara, J. and Boyle, R. (2008) 'Influences Shaping National Evaluation Policies: the case of Ireland'. THE EVALUATOR, 14 :15-19
Brendan J. Walsh (2007) 'Asking the Right Questions: Teacher Education in the Republic of Ireland'. EDUCATION RESEARCH AND PERSPECTIVES, 33 :37-59
McNamara G. and O Hara,J. (2006) 'Workable Compromise or Pointless Exercise?: School-based Evaluation in the Irish Context'. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION AND LEADERSHIP, 34 :564-582
Brendan J. Walsh (2006) 'The Challenge of Change: Secondary Schooling in Ireland 1922 - 1998'. HISTORY OF EDUCATION RESEARCHER, 78 :95-104
Brendan J. Walsh (2006) 'Schoolmaster of All-Ireland: A Response to Dr. David Limond'. HISTORY OF EDUCATION REVIEW, 35 :32-44
McNamara, G., Mulcahy,C. and O Hara,J. (2005) 'An Evaluation of Staff Training Needs and Provision in the Further Education Sector in Ireland'. JOURNAL OF ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION, 11 :155-170
McNamara, G. and O Hara,J. (2005) 'Internal Review and Self-Evaluation ; the Chosen Route to School Improvement in Ireland?'. STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION, 31 :267-282
McNamara, G. and J. O Hara (2004) 'Trusting the Teacher – Evaluating Educational Innovation'. EVALUATION: INT. JOURNAL OF THEORY, RESEARCH & PRACTICE, 10 :463-474
McNamara,G. and O Hara,J. (2002) 'Whole School Evaluation and School Development Planning – an Analysis of recent Initiatives in Ireland'. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION AND LEADERSHIP, 25 :201-211
O Hara, J. and G.McNamara (2001) 'Process and Product: Issues in the Evaluation of School Development Planning'. EVALUATION: INT. JOURNAL OF THEORY, RESEARCH & PRACTICE, 7 :99-119
O Hara,J & Byrne, S (2000) 'A positive approach to discipline: An assessment'. IRISH EDUCATIONAL STUDIES, 19 :68-81 [DOI]
O Hara, J. and McNamara, G (1999) 'Evaluation: Business or Vocation?'. EVALUATION: INT. JOURNAL OF THEORY, RESEARCH & PRACTICE, 5 :490-503
McNamara, G., H. Roussi and J. O Hara (1997) 'Entrepreneurship in Teaching: Some Pedagogical Challenges from the Perspective of Teacher Education'. Points of Departure: the European Dimension in Vocational Teacher Education 1 :37-50
School Inspection in a Polycentric Context: The case of Northern Ireland.
Brown, M., McNamra,G., and O Hara, J (2015) School Inspection in a Polycentric Context: The case of Northern Ireland. Dublin: EQI
Knowing Their Place? The Intellectual Life of Women in the Nineteenth-Century. Dublin: History Press, Ireland. [Details]
Walsh, B. (2014) Knowing Their Place? the intellectual life of women in nineteenth-century Ireland. : History Press. [Details]
'Knowing their Place?' is comprehensive account of the public, private and intellectual life of Irish women in the Victorian age. In particular, this book looks at the steady progress of girls and women within the education system, their gradual involvement in intellectual life through amateur societies (such as the Royal Dublin Society); their emergence of independent, highly motivated scholarly and philanthropic individuals who operated within local spheres with often very considerable degrees of success and influence
Irish Universities are in crisis! They are dangerously underfunded and have become crippled by micro-management and preposterous metrics. They have become effectively a boot-camp for the workplace and are promoted as being the only option for every Leaving certificate student. In addition there is the unrealistic expectation that they should react immediately to every political or economic whim and the, increasingly invasive, financing and regulatory framework imposed by national and European government. This book offers a long overdue and crucial discussion on the nature and purpose of education in Ireland.
The contributions come from both Irish and UK based academics and argue that, increasingly, universities are being redefined and operated by interests outside the academy, leading to crass commercial understandings of what it is they do, but sadly ignorant of what is it they can do.
Trusting Schools and Teachers: Developing Educational Professionalism Through Self-Evaluation
Mc Namara, G. and O'Hara, J. (2008) Trusting Schools and Teachers; Developing Educational Professionalism through Self-Evaluation. : Peter Lang. [Details]
This book emerged from a series of studies undertaken with teachers at various stages of their careers exploring the impact of a range of evaluation systems on their personal and professional development. The book begins with a comparative analysis of the rise of school and teacher evaluation, charting the trend's conceptual and political influences, and highlights how the concept of self-evaluation has come, for a variety of reasons, to play a surprisingly large role in the emerging approaches to school and teacher evaluation. This is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the emerging system of whole-school evaluation in Ireland. Research indicates that while self-evaluation looms large in the system's theoretical framework, in fact, there is strong evidence that neither schools nor teachers have the expertise required to systematically self-evaluate. This book identifies methodologies designed to empower schools and teachers to become genuinely self-evaluating through the development of research skills in the context of online communities of practice.
Straight Talk - Researching Gay & Lesbian Issues in the School Curriculum
Norman, J., Galvin, M. and McNamara, G. (2006) Straight Talk:Researching Gay and Lesbian Issues in the School Curriculum. : The Gender Equality Unit of the Dept of Education and Science
Norman, J., Galvin, M. and McNamara, G
A New Book for Teachers, Parents & Students of Education. For the first time, this book shines a light onto the reality of gay and lesbian issues in the school curriculum and the difficulties experienced by student, parents, teachers and school administrators in relation to homophobic bullying.
Vision in the Curriculum: Evaluating a Pilot Project on Film Studies in Irish Schools
McNamara,G (2005) Vision in the Curriculum:An evaluation of the Fis Project in Primary schools in Ireland. : Fis Project/Dept of Education and Science. [Details]
Innovations come and go in education. It is a notorious testing ground for theories, fashions and fads regarded as vital at a particular time but discarded in due course. This book evaluates the FÍS project in terms of key measures of potential futue impact.
Selected Older Books
McNamara,G.,C. Mulcahy and J. O' Hara. (2004) An Analysis of the Training Needs of Trainers in the Furthur Education Sector in Ireland. : Dept. of Education and Science/Leonardo Da Vinci Prog.
McNiff,J.,G.McNamara and D. Leonard. (2001) Action Research in Ireland. : Educational Studies Association of Ireland/September Books.
2000 Positive Discipline.
O' Hara, J., S. Byrne and G. McNamara. (2000) Positive Discipline. : Dept. of Education and Science,Ireland.
1998 Guidance in Adult and Continuing Education. .
McNamara, G. (1998) Guidance in Adult and Continuing Education. . : National Centre for Guidance in Education.
McKenna P., McNamara, G. and Barrett T. (1997) Principal's Perceptions of the Guidance Service in Post Primary Schools. : National Centre for Guidance in Education.
McNamara, G., K.Williams and D.Heron (1990) Achievement and Aspiration: Curricular Initiatives in Irish Post Primary Education in the 1980s. : National Education Centres.
Williams, K., G. McNamara and D.West (1988) Understanding Trade Unions (Revised and reprinted 1995 and 1999). : O’Brien Press..
Williams, K. and G.McNamara (1986) The Vocational Preparation Course: an Educational Appraisal and Practical Guide. . : Ass. of Secondary Teachers in Ireland.
Culture Changes, Irish Evaluation and Assessment Traditions Stay the Same?
O' Hara, J., McNamara, G. and Harrison, K. (2014) 'Culture Changes, Irish Evaluation and Assessment Traditions Stay the Same? Exploring Peer- and Self-Assessment as a Means of Empowering Ethnic Minority Students' In: Continuing the Journey to Reposition Culture and Cultural Context in Evaluation Theory and Practice. Information Age Publishing
This chapter focuses on how the traditional practice of educational assessment has been impacted by the rapidly changing social, economic, demographic and cultural context in the Ireland of today. Specifically, it explores the pressure on the school system to adapt to the presence of learners from a diverse range of cultural backgrounds and the system’s response, from the viewpoints of both learners and teachers. Ireland is not new to managing the complexity of minority groups within the population. The Irish Travelling community has been an indigenous but distinct population throughout Irish history with its own discrete culture. Descended from a traditionally nomadic population who followed herds of cattle and later lived by selling their own skills and crafts, most Travellers today live settled lives in houses, but endeavor to remain true to their heritage and customs.
This chapter looks in particular at one example of a class comprising Traveller and other students where they joined the teacher in assessing their learning. Through a process of Peer and Self-Assessment, the students assessed themselves and each other. It examines the cultural responsiveness of the assessment and its impact on the inclusion of all students, including members of the Travelling community, from student and teacher perspectives.
High-Ability Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds
Healion, E. and O Hara, J. (2015) 'High-Ability Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds' In: Gifted Education in Ireland and the United States. Dublin: CTYI
Despite their similarities, gifted children remain a diverse group. They come from every background and have different interests, abilities and academic potential. This means that the educational needs of gifted children vary greatly, and educators must respond in a way that recognizes and supports their individuality. Gifted Education in Ireland and the United States examines the current thinking and best practice in the education of exceptional children. It brings together a range of experts to provide an overview of the field in the two countries and to explore areas such as: • curriculum development • the social and emotional needs of gifted students • availability of programmes and courses • Internet resources • accelerated education The result of a collaboration between CTY Ireland at Dublin City University and the Center for Gifted Education at William & Mary – two institutions renowned for their work in the area – this book is an important and timely addition to the literature on the subject. From parents and educators to researchers working in the field, Gifted Education in Ireland and the United States is an invaluable resource for anyone navigating the world of the gifted child.
Wie will Schulinspektion wirken? Analyse von Annahmen uber Wirkungs-mechanismen von Schulinspektion in sechs europaischen Landern
Altrichter, H., Ehren, M.C.M., McNamara, G. & O Hara, J (2014). Journal: Schule? Qualitat und Schulentwicklung
In this Festschrift in honor of Heinz Günter Holtappels, Professor of Educational Science at the Institute for School Development Research, current issues from the fields of education management and school development are discussed. Thus, the contributions also reflect the central work and research priorities of Heinz Günter Holtappels: Basic theoretical foundations and research findings to be considered for school development. Further analyzes of the classroom and school quality are taken into focus, also the development of all-day schools in Germany is discussed. Finally, relevant developments on the evaluation and quality management in the school context are pointed out. The authors come from different countries and professional disciplines and represent the different stages of scientific career of Heinz Günter Holtappels.
Fostering complicit femininity: Epoch, education and the young female body
McSharry M.;Walsh B. (2014) 'Fostering complicit femininity: Epoch, education and the young female body' In: A Critical Youth Studies for the 21st Century. USA: Brill. [DOI] [Details]
Drawing on contemporary critical social theories and diverse methodologies, A Critical Youth Studies for the 21st Century explores the educational, employment, cultural and embodied issues that confront young people, and those who work with them, in a globalised world.
Riding the Celtic Tiger: Forces Shaping Evaluation Culture in Ireland in Good Times and Bad
Boyle, R;McNamara, G;O'Hara, J (2012) 'Riding the Celtic Tiger: Forces Shaping Evaluation Culture in Ireland in Good Times and Bad' In: EVALUATION CULTURES: SENSE-MAKING IN COMPLEX TIMES. PISCATAWAY: TRANSACTION PUBLISHERS
Education in Ireland since the sixteenth century
Brendan Walsh (2011) 'Education in Ireland since the sixteenth century' In: Education Studies in Ireland: Key Disciplines. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
A unique new book offering students in Ireland a core text for the foundation disciplines of educational studies. * Presents a comprehensive introduction to the five key disciplines that form the foundation of the study of education: * Philosophy of Education * History of Education * Sociology of Education * Curriculum Studies * Psychology of Education. * Includes critical accounts of recent policy developments within education in Ireland, identifying their relevance to those undertaking studies in education and those preparing to enter professional practice. * Explains the core theories, professional practices and challenges associated with the study of education in each of the five key disciplines. * Provides an overview of new developments in each of the disciplines, outlining the relevance to teaching and learning. * Details a comprehensive list of references and recommendations for further reading.
The Evaluation of Adult Education and Training Programmes
Adult education and training has undergone fundamental reform in recent decades.Firstly, the conceptual framework underpinning theories of adult education and training has become deeply contested. In terms of curricular structure the traditional focus on behavioural outcomes has been replaced by the broader concept of ‘competences’. Equally, increased demands for value for money in public services have resulted in questions of accountability and quality moving to the fore. Evaluation has also progressed dramatically and is now no longer simply concerned primarily with measurable outcomes but with process, stakeholder roles, values and quality.
In this changed context the purposes of evaluation for adult education and training programs must be chosen carefully, clearly articulated and well understood by all concerned. The steps, general approaches and procedures to be employed must then correspond to the purposes. In other words the method must be appropriate for the intention. In this chapter the contextual issues to be considered in the evaluation of adult education and training programs are outlined. Key questions which need to be answered whichever approach is undertaken are presented. Evaluation models and approaches are summarized and two particular models are highlighted as popular but contrasting approaches to evaluating adult education and training programs. Finally a greater emphasis on self-evaluation is suggested as an approach worth considering for the twenty-first century in the field of adult education and training.
Radicalising the Classroom: Pearse and the Pedagogy of Progressivism
Brendan Walsh (2009) 'Radicalising the Classroom: Pearse and the Pedagogy of Progressivism' In: The Life and After-Life of P.H.Pearse. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.
Presents a complete critical work on Pearse in the lead up to the 100 year commemoration of his death. Revisits the life of Pearse with a view to his relevance to present day theories and teachings on history, language, literature and culture. Extensively illustrated with previously unseen material from the Pearse Museum Archives.
Where Global Meets Local, Contexts, Constraints and Consensus in School Evaluation in Ireland
McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J. (2009) 'Where Global Meets Local, Contexts, Constraints and Consensus in School Evaluation in Ireland. ' In: Sage International Handbook on Educational Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bringing together the expertise of top evaluation leaders from around the world, The SAGE International Handbook of Educational Evaluation addresses methods and applications in the field, particularly as they relate to policy- and decision-making in an era of globalization. The comprehensive collection of articles in the Handbook compels readers to consider globalization influences on educational evaluation within distinct genres or families of evaluation approaches.
Discusses substantive issues surrounding globalization, and its implication for educational policy and practice and ultimately evaluation;
Includes state-of-the-art theory chapters and method chapters within scientific, accountability-oriented, learning-oriented, and political genres of evaluation approaches;
Provides real-world case exemplar chapters to illustrate core concepts within genres;
Extends dialogue on controversial topics and contemporary educational evaluation tensions in the context of globalization;
Summarizes, by means of an integration chapter, the issues, tensions and dilemmas confronting educational evaluators in an era of globalization.
Ethical Leadership in an Age of Evaluation: Implications for Whole School Wellbeing'
McNamara, G; O'Hara, J (2009) 'Ethical Leadership in an Age of Evaluation: Implications for Whole School Wellbeing' In: INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF EDUCATION FOR SPIRITUALITY, CARE AND WELLBEING, PTS ONE AND TWO. BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN.
Acknowledging and understanding spiritual formation is vital in contemporary education. This book explores the dynamic relationship between education and wellbeing. It examines the theory underpinning the practice of education in different societies where spirituality and care are believed to be at the heart of all educational experiences. The book recognizes that, regardless of the context or type of educational experience, education is a caring activity in which the development of the whole person - body, mind and spirit - is a central aim for teachers and educators in both formal and informal learning.
The chapters in this handbook present and discuss topics that focus on spirituality as an integral part of human experience and, consequently, essential to educational programs which aim to address personal and communal identity, foster resilience, empathy and compassion, and promote meaning and connectedness.
Selected Older Book Chapters
Rami, J., Lalor, J. and McNamara, G. (2007) 'Multiple Approaches to Reflection as a Key Component of Assessment' In: Case Studies of Good Practice in Assessment of Student Learning in Higher Education. Dublin: The All Ireland Society for Higher Education.
McNamara, G., Rami, J. and Lalor, J. (2006) 'Triangulation and Reflection in Practice - Oriented Assessment within Vocational Teacher Education Programmes - a Case Study' In: Quality and Practice in Asessment; New Approaches in Work -Related Learning. Jyvasklya,Finland: Institute for Eduacational Research, Finland and EU Leonardo Da Vinci. [Details]
Stenstrom, M. L, Grollman, P., Lalor, J., McNamara, G., Messerer, K., Rami, J., Tutschner, R., and Umarik, M. (2006) 'Elements of Good Practice' In: Towards Good Practice for Practice – Oriented Assessment in European Vocational Education. Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyvaskyla/EU Leonard.
Rami, J, G, McNamara, J, Lalor (2005) 'Ireland' In: Quality Assurance and Practice - Oriented Assessment in Vocational Education and Training: Country Studies. Bremen: Institute Technik und Bildung / European Commission.
2003 'The Landscape of Curriculum Inquiry in the Republic of Ireland'
Williams, K. and G. McNamara (2003) 'The Landscape of Curriculum Inquiry in the Republic of Ireland' In: The Handbook of International Curriculum Research. Lawrence Earlbaum, Washington D.C.
McNamara, G. and J. O’Hara (2000) (2000) 'Action Research for Organizational Change' In: Action Research in Ireland. Educational Studies Association of Ireland
McNamara, G. (1997) (1997) 'Changing Our Teachers: Teacher Education and Re-education - a Key Dimension of Curriculum Reform in Further Education' In: Points of Departure; the European Dimension in Vocational Teacher Education. European Commission.
McNamara, G. (1996) (1996) 'Curriculum Development in Vocational Education and Training in Ireland 1991-95' In: Issues of Adult and Occupational Education in Ireland and Finland. National Board of Education Finland/ European Commission.
McNamara, G. (1995) 'The Changing Face of Vocational Education Provision in the Post Primary Sector of Education in the Irish Republic' In: Curriculum Policy in the 1990s: Northern and Southern Perspectives. Co-operation North.
McNamara, G. (1990) 'Teachers and Innovation: Pre- and In-Service Training Strategies from the First and Second European Action Programmes on Transition from School to Adult and Working Life. ' In: Teacher Education in the Nineties:Towards a New Coherence. Association of Teacher Educators in Europe.
Brown, M. Gallagher, S. (2015) Temperatures Rising: Using digital tools to make the perfect recipe for assessment and evaluation. [Invited Oral Presentation], Make, Bake, Take - ICT in Education Conference, Limerick Institute of Technology, Thurles , 24-APR-15 - 25-APR-15
Harrison, K., McNamara, G. and O Hara, J, (2015) Evaluating the Impact on Education Provision of Rapid Demographic Change in the Irish Midlands. European Conference on Educational Research, Budapest , 09-SEP-15 - 11-SEP-15
O Hara, J., Brown,M., McNamara,G.,Ehren,M.,Janssens,F.,Simeonova,R. (2015) Charting the Rise of Polycentric Evaluation,. European Conference on Educational Research, Budapest , 09-SEP-15 - 11-SEP-15
O Hara, J, Brown, M, Shevlin, P and McNamara, G. (2015) Together towards improvement ? The case of Polycentric inspection in Northern Ireland,. Educational Studies Association of Ireland Annual Conference,, Maynooth , 09-APR-15 - 11-APR-15
Harrison K.,Corrigan T.,McNamara G. and O Hara J. (2015) Students' Health : a Family Affair in a Changing World,. Educational Studies Association of Ireland Annual Conference, NUI, Maynooth, Co. Kildare , 09-APR-15 - 11-APR-15
Harrison K.,Corrigan T.,McNamara G. and O Hara J (2015) Students’ Health – A Family Affair in a Changing world.Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Maynooth Co. Kildare , 09-APR-15 - 11-APR-15
Ashkanani,A., O Hara, J. Lovatt, J., Al-Hassan, A. and Tamtam,A. (2015) The impact of job relevant factors on instructors attitudes towards an e-learning system in Kuwait University using a Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). [Non-Peer Reviewed Published Proceedings], The Clute Institute International Education Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico , 22-MAR-15 - 26-MAR-15
Brown, M. (2015) From policy to practice - Using Mobile Technologies for Assessment and Evaluation in a school environment. [Invited Oral Presentation], 1st International Conference on Mobile Technologies in Teacher Education . http://www.gratek.ie/mite2015/Conference_booklet.pdf, NUI, Galway , 23-JAN-15 - 25-JAN-15 [
McNamara, G. (2015) The changing Face of school Inspection - International Perspectives. International conference on education for the Future: Issues and Challenges, Ankara University, Turkey , 13-MAY-15 - 15-MAY-15
O' Hara, J. and McNamara, G. (2014) External Support For School Self-Evaluation. EURASIAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH CONGRESS, Istanbul, Turkey , 24-APR-14 - 26-APR-14
Harrison, K., O'Hara, J. and McNamara, G (2014) Addressing Cultural Responsiveness in Education and Training. 11th Biennial Conference of the European Evaluation Society, Dublin , 01-OCT-14 - 03-OCT-14
Brown,M., O'Brien,S.,McNamara,G. and O'Hara,J. (2014) Tracing the changing face of School Evaluation in the Republic of Ireland. 11th Biennial Conference of the European Evaluation Society, Dublin , 01-OCT-14 - 03-OCT-14
O'Hara, J., McNamara, G., O'Brien, S. & Brown, M. (2014) The Rise of Self-Evaluation in Ireland. The Rise of School Development in Relation to Accountability and Evaluation Systems - EARLI Sig 23, University of Bielefeld, Germany , 11-NOV-14 - 13-NOV-14
O'Hara, J., McNamara, G., and Brown, M. (2014) The Rise of Self-Evaluation in Ireland. The changing face of school inspections; theories and practices, Gothenburg, Sweden , 03-JUN-14 - 04-JUN-14
Harrison, K., McNamara,G., O' Hara, J. and Nayir, F (2014) Teacher and Student Participation in Second-Level School Processes and Practices. European Conference on Educational Research, Porto, Portugal , 03-SEP-14 - 05-SEP-14
O Hara, J, McNamara, G. and Brown, M. (2014) From looking at schools to looking at self‐regulation: Tracing the changing face of school evaluation and assessment in the republic of Ireland. Educational Studies Association of Ireland Annual Conference, Athlone , 10-APR-14 - 12-APR-14
Skedsmo, G., McNamara, G. and Altrichter, H. (2013) Classifying approaches to school inspection European Conference on Educational Research, Annual Meeting, Istanbul,Turkey , 09-SEP-13 - 13-SEP-13
Brown, M., O'Hara, J,. & McNamara, G. & (2013) Save us from the time of trial : From Austerity to Prosperity and Back Again. Annual Conference of the Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Limerick, Ireland , 21-MAR-13 - 23-MAR-13
O Hara, J, McNamara, G and Harrison, K. (2013) Culture Changes, Irish Evaluation and Assessment Traditions Stay the Same?.], Repositioning Culture in Evaluation and Assessment : Centre for Culturally Responsive Evaluation and Assessment Inaugural Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA , 21-APR-13 - 23-APR-13
McNamara, G. ,Harrison, K., O’Hara,J. (2013) Students and teachers perceptions of participation in institutional processes and practices. European Conference on Educational Research, Annual Meeting,, Istanbul, Turkey , 09-SEP-13 - 13-SEP-13
McNamara, G. (2013) The Role of Culture in Evaluation. [Speech], 15th International Conference on Education, Athens Institute for Education and Research , 20-MAY-13 - 23-MAY-13
Altrichter, H., McNamara, G. Ohara, J. and Ehren, M.C.M. (2012) How Do School Inspections Aim To Further School Improvement?European Conference on Educational Research, Cadiz, Spain , 17-SEP-12 - 21-SEP-12
Altrichter, H, O Hara , J, McNamara G, Ehren M.C.M. (2012) Examining the Assumptions of European Inspectorates of Education: A Conceptual Model,. [Conference Organising Committee Member], European Conference on Educational Research, Cadiz, Spain , 18-SEP-12 - 21-SEP-1
O'Hara, Joe (2012) Educational Evaluation in an Age of Transformation: Finding a balance in unbalanced times. Educational Studies Association of Ireland Annual Conference, University College Cork , 29-MAR-12 - 31-MAR-12
Brown, M. (2011) Towards a sustainable typology for evaluation and assessment in education. [Invited Oral Presentation], Towards a sustainable typology for evaluation and assessment in education - All Ireland Conference for Researchers in Education, UCD, Dublin , 13-MAY-11 - 15-MAY-11
Corrigan, T,McNamara, G.and O'Hara, J. (2011) Intergenerational Learning- A Conversation. [Carnegie Research Institute Seminar, Leeds Metropolitan University , 22-MAR-11 - 23-MAR-11
McNamara,G. O’Hara,J. Corrigan,T. (2011) Intergenerational Learning as a Perspective on Learner Voice in Educational Research, American Educational Research Association, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA , 08-APR-11 - 12-APR-11
Corrigan,T.and McNamara,G. (2011) Intergenerational Learning at Third Level: A perspective on a Partnership. Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Annual Meeting, Dublin , 14-APR-11 - 16-APR-11 [Details]
McNamara,G.and O'Hara, J. (2011) The Rhetoric and Reality of Inspection in Irish Post Primary Schools. , Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Annual Meeting, Dublin , 14-APR-11 - 16-APR-11
McNamara, G., O Hara, J., Anderson, K.,Brien, K.and McIsaac, D. (2010) Choosing not to lead-examing the reluctant school learder in Ireland and Canada. Annual Conference of the educational Stuies Association of Ireland, Dundalk, Ireland , 25-MAR-10 - 27-MAR-10
McNamara,G. (2010) Democracy, Equality and the Control of Schools – A case study. XIV World Congress of Comparative Education Societies,, Istanbul, Turkey , 06-JUN-10 - 09-JUN-10
McNamara,G. and Corrigan, T. (2010) Intergenerational Learning. Annual Conference of the Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Dundalk,Ireland , 25-MAR-10 - 27-MAR-10
McNamara, G., O Hara, J., Anderson, K.,Brien, K.and McIsaac, D. (2010) Reluctance Factors for Principals in Canada and Ireland. Annual Conference of the British Educational Leadership Management and Administration Society, Reading, England , 08-JUL-10 - 11-JUL-10
O'Hara,J, McNamara,G and Boyle,R., (2010) Tiger-Forces Shaping Evaluation in Ireland in Good Times and in Bad. [Conference Organising Committee Member], European Evaluation Society Bi-Annual Conference,, Prague , 06-OCT-10 - 08-OCT-10
McNamara, G., O'Hara, J. and Mulkerrins, B. (2009) Whole School Evaluation and Professional Education in Irish Schools. Annual Conference of the Eductional Studies Association of Ireland, Kilkenny , 02-APR-09 - 04-APR-09
McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J. (2009) Theory and Evidence in European Educational Research. European Conference on Educational Research, the Annual Conference of the European Educational Research Association, Vienna , 01-OCT-09 - 03-OCT-09
Anderson,K., Brien,K., McNamara,G.and O’Hara, J. (2009) Where have ‘some’ of the leaders gone: Reluctance factors in leadership graduates as aspiring administrators . The Canadian Association for Studies in Educational Administration, Ottawa-Canada , 23-MAY-09 - 26-MAY-09
McNamara, G., O'Hara, J., Cuddihy, N. and Forde, M. (2008) Engaging with Whole-School Evaluation. Annual Conference of the Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Galway , 06-MAR-08 - 08-MAR-08
McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J. (2008) Directions and Dilemmas in Research on Teaching and Teacher Education in Ireland. Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, New York , 24-MAR-08 - 28-MAR-08
McNamara, G. (2008) Promoting Educational Research: New Doctorates, Funding Streams and Policy Contexts. , Annual Conference of the Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Galway , 06-MAR-08 - 08-MAR-08
McNamara, G. (2008) Leadership and Control,Ethos and Diversity in Faith- Based Schools. Annual Conference of the British Educational Leadership Management and Administration Society, Aston Business School, Birmingham , 04-JUL-08 - 06-JUL-08
McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J. (2008) Key Research Agenda-A Briefing from the Republic of Ireland. Developing Celtic Capacity in Educational Research, University of Ulster, Jordanstown , 09-JUN-08 - 10-JUN-08 [Details]
O Hara, J.,Conway, P.,Clarke, L., Sullivan, C., and Austin, R. (2008) Transforming Educational Practice with Digital Video.Learning With Moving Images: Digital Video in Education and Teacher Education, Grand Hotel Malahide , 22-MAY-08 - 23-MAY-08
Selected older conference Publications
O'Hara, J., Conway, P., Graffin, D. and Austin, R. (2007) ICT’s in initial teacher education in Ireland: Perspectives from north and south ., CAL 07- Development, Disruption and Debate D 3, Trinity College, Dublin , 26-MAR-07 - 28-MAR-07
O'Hara, J.,Sullivan,C.,Conway,P. and Austin, R. (2007) ICTs in Initial Teacher Education North and South: The Challenges of Embedding ICTs in the Learning to teach experience. [Speech], Standing Conference on Teacher Education, North and South (SCoTENS) Annual Conference: Teaching in the Knowledge Society, Grand Hotel Malahide, Dublin , 22-NOV-07 - 23-NOV-0
McNamara, G.,O'Hara, J. and Bovle, R. (2006) Influences shaping national evakuation policies; an Irish case study., Joint Conference of the European Evaluation Society and the Uk Evaluation Society, London , 04-OCT-06 - 06-OCT-06
McNamara, G. and Kenny,A. (2006) Quality,evaluation,policy,theory and practice in the education sector., Joint conference of the European Evaluation Society and the UK Evaluation Society, London , 04-OCT-06 - 06-OCT-06
McNamara, G. and Norman, J. (2006) Homophobic Bullying: Evaluating Relationships and Sexuality Education in Irish Second Level Schools. [Poster Presentation], The Second World Curriculum Studies Conference,, Tampere, Finland , 21-MAY-06 - 24-MAY-06
O’Hara, J., O’Sullivan, C. and McNamara, G. (2006) Can online interaction add to the Microteaching Experience?. Annual Conference of the Educational Studies Association of Ireland, Dublin,NCAD , 30-MAR-06 - 01-APR-06 [Details]
O'Hara, J. and Norman,J. (2006) You Can't Tell Me What To Do, I Know My Rights ! The Changing Nature of Classroom Behaviour in the 21st Century. [Conference Organising Committee Member], Mapping Transformations: Identities and Communities, Dublin City University , 11-MAY-06 - 12-MAY-06
O'Hara, J. (2006) Reporting on a national Survey of ICT use in ITE: Republic of Ireland Perspective. [Speech], Standing Conference on Teacher Education North and South (SCOTENS) - Information and Communications Technology in Initial Teacher Education, Malahide, Dublin , 26-OCT-06 - 27-OCT-0
McNamara, G, O’Hara, J and O’Sullivan, C. (2005) 'I’ll show you what I mean' ; using digital video technology and online discussion fora to enhance teacher education students' microteaching and teaching practice experience. Interlearn 2005 Conference, Helsinki, Finland , 03-DEC-05 - 06-MAR-05- 2005 International Congress on the School of the Future,
McNamara, G. (2005) Education Policy and the Creation of a Knowledge Society. International Congress on the School of the Future, University of Granada , 28-APR-05 - 29-APR-05 [Details]
McNamara, G. and Norman, J. (2005) Feel the fear and do it anyway: Identifying the Need for Sexuality Education in Irish Second – Level Schools. [Speech], Annual Meeting of the Association for Moral Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education , 01-NOV-05 - 04-NOV-05 [Details]
Rami, J., McNamara, G. and Lalor, J. (2005) The Irish Context: Practice – Oriented Assessment in Vocational Education and Training, Current Systems, New Trends and Future Developments. European Conference on Educational Research, the Annual Conference of the European Educational Research Association, Dublin,UCD , 12-SEP-05 - 15-SEP-05
O'Hara, J and McNamara, G. (2005) Embedding a culture of evaluation: The Whole School Evaluation Experience. ESAI Annual Conference, University College Cork , 10-MAR-05 - 11-MAR-05
McNamara, G. and J O'Hara, (2005) Fighting the Wrong War? Curriculum Studies in the Age of Evaluation. American Association for the Advancement of Curriculum Studies, Mc Gill University, Montreal, Canada , 09-APR-05 - 11-APR-05
McNamara, G. and J O'Hara (2004) Knowing what they need to know ? Data in School Self-Evaluation. 6th Biennial Conference of the European Evaluation Society, Berlin, Germany , 30-SEP-04 - 02-OCT-04
O' Hara, J and McNamara, G. (2004) Online Professional Development: real trainers in a Virtual World?. Annual conference of the Education Studies Association of Ireland, National University of Ireland, Maynooth , 02-APR-04 - 03-APR-04
McNamara, G. and J O'Hara. (2004) The Whole-School Evaluation Experience. Irish Evaluation Network Innaugural Conference, DCU , 25-SEP-04 - 25-SEP-04
McNamara, G. , J. O'Hara and Griffin, S, (2003) Vision in the Curriculum: Evaluating Expressive Objectives. American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago , 21-APR-03 - 25-APR-03
McNamara, G. and J O’Hara (2003) Evaluating the Reflective Practitioner – a Contradiction in Terms?. [Conference Organising Committee Member], Critical Debates in Action Research, University of Limerick , 05-JUN-03 - 07-JUN-03
McNamara,G. and O'Hara, J (2002) Evaluating Quality – an Analysis of Recent Developments in Whole School Evaluation in the Irish Education System. 4th EES Biennial Conference: Taking Evaluation to the People, Lausanne, Switzerland , 12-OCT-02 - 14-OCT-02
McNamara,G.and J O'Hara. (2001) Evaluating Quality in Education - an Analysis of recent developments in Whole School Evaluation in the Irish Education System. Annual Conference of the European Evaluation Society, Lausanne , 08-OCT-01 - 12-OCT-01
McNmara,G.,J O'Hara and B. English. (2001) Whole School Development through Evaluation-An Assessment of a National Pilot Project., American Educational Research Ass, Seattle , 11-APR-01 - 15-APR-01
McNamara, G. and J. O’Hara (2001) Irish Education at the Millennium: Changing Perceptions of Cultural and Religious Identity. Inaugural Conference of the Spanish Association for Irish Studies, University of Burgos, Spain , 22-MAY-01 - 25-MAY-01
O'Hara, J. and G. McNamara, (2000) Pathways in Lifelong Learning for Adult Educators: Issues in Structural Change for Social Inclusion. European Access Network 9th Annual Convention, Santiago De Compostela, Spain , 10-SEP-00 - 12-SEP-00
O'Hara, J and G. McNamara, (1999) The Person in the Process of Change: Action Research in Improving Organisations. International Study Association on Teachers and Teaching, St. Patricks College, DCU , 27-JUL-99 - 31-JUL-99
O'Hara, J and G. McNamara. (1999) Teacher Professional Development and Organisational Growth - a Collaborative Research Perspective. .Third International Conference on Teacher Education, Beit Berl College, Tel Aviv , 20-JUN-99 - 22-JUN-99
McNamara, G. and J. O'Hara. (1998) Evaluation and Organisational Climate: Practical and Emancipatory Goals in Evaluation Design. 3rd European Evaluation Society Biennial Conference,, Rome, Italy , 10-OCT-98 - 12-
McNamara, G. and J. O'Hara. (1997) Teaching in a Digital World: Teacher Development and the Facilitation of Effective Learning in the Modern Educational Environment. Annual Conference of the Educational Studies Association of Ireland, University College Galway , 10-APR-97 - 12-APR-97
Brown, M., McNamara, G., and O'Hara, J. (2015) Notes on a Small Island: National Survey Results of Principals Attitudes Towards School Self-Evaluation (2013-2014). EQI - Centre for Evaluation, Quality and Inspection, Dublin, Dublin.
Brown, M., McNamara, G., and O'Hara, J. (2014) Notes on a Small Island: National Survey Results of Principals Attitudes Towards School Self-Evaluation (2012-2013). EQI - Centre for Evaluation, Quality and Inspection, Dublin, Dublin.
O'Hara, J and McNamara, G. (2003) 'An Evaluation of the IAN / FRY Vocational Skills Training Programme : Belgrade, Serbia' APSO / Trocaire, .
McNamara, G.,O’Hara, J. (1999) 'The Vocational Education and Training System in Surinam Present Realities and Future Directions' United Nations Development Programme, New York, .
O’Hara, J. (1998) A Report on Vocational Education in Cayo, Belize. APSO
Brown, M. Gallagher, S. (2015) On line Course - ePortfolios: Using Digital Tools for Content Creation, Collaboration and Assessment - PDST Technology in Education. Dublin, Ireland: Multimedia
Brown, M. (2014) Online Course - Introduction to School Self Evaluation (SSE) : PDST, Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: Multimedia [Details]
Anderson, J. and Brown, M. (2009) Looking Forward - Evidence of how schools in Northern Ireland are responding to self-evaluation for improvement; M. Brown: some principles to consider in moving forward in a school: http://www.neelb.tv/de/together-towards-improvement/looking-forward/. Northern Ireland: Television
Austin,R.,Conway,P.,Graffin,D. and O'Hara,J. (2007) 'ICTs in Initial Teacher Education North and South: The Challenges of Embedding ICTs in the Learning to teach experience' SCOTENS Annual Report: Teacher Education And Schools - Together Towards Improvement, :106-116
Burns, D (1991) “Women Principals Project” —“Women Principals in Brisbane Catholic Education: An Investigation of their Under-Representation” in Curriculum Connections, a Queensland Catholic Education Commission Curriculum Bulletin Vol 3, No. 4
Burns, D (1991) “Strategy for a Change from Traditional to Vertical Structure” in Curriculum Capers published by Brisbane Catholic Education.
Burns, D (1989) : “Gender Differences in the Australian Scholastic Aptitude Test”