Counselling and Personal Development Service
Child Sexual Abuse
Definition: Child sexual abuse has been described as the involvement of children and adolescents in sexual activity which they do not fully comprehend and to which they are unable to give informed consent. There are a number of offences under which a case in law may be brought, such as incest, attempted incest, unlawful intercourse, attempted intercourse, buggary, rape, indecent assault, use of children in illegal photographs or filmed acts, exposure to pornography and so forth (Schecter & Roberge, 1976).
Child sexual abuse does not fall into any one social class, professional, occupational or ethnic group. The sexual abuse may begin with inappropriate touching or fondling through exposure to pornography or sex acts and lead up to sexual intercourse or rape. Child sexual abuse has factors in common with other forms of child abuse, such as physical abuse, neglect or the less commonly recognised emotional abuse. The psychological effects of all these forms of abuse are similar and should be approached similarly.
Sexual abuse is often referred to in categories such as mild or severe. This usually involves looking at whether there was penetrative abuse or not, the frequency of the abuse, the duration and the relationship between the abuser and the child. There have been slight differences in various studies regarding the importance of each of these factors in determining treatment procedures. The background of the child is also conceivable that a child fondled on only one occasion by a drunken adult can be psychologically traumatised to the same extent as a child with a much longer history of persistent abuse.
Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
There may not necessarily by any lasting or obvious physical effects of sexual abuse, but the psychological effects are much more prominent. These show themselves in many different ways. They can affect many areas of the survivor's life and they may not come to the surface until the survivor reaches adulthood. Problems in adult relationships and sexual difficulties with partners may result. Some experience difficulties when they themselves have a child or reach other important times in their lives such as starting college. Issues may be triggered and they may suddenly find themselves unable to cope.
It has not been possible to identify the specific behavioural patterns which can only have been caused by child sexual abuse, although abnormal sexual attitudes and fantasies are often linked to earlier abusive relationships.
Common psychological effects which have been observed include low self-esteem, depression, withdrawal, self injury, nightmares and flashbacks of abuse. There may also be a high level of guilt and repressed anger in the survivor of the abuse.
Recognition and Assessment
There are many behavioural signs which can alert to the possibility of sexual abuse having taken place. In young children these can include bed wetting and soiling, aggressive outbursts, over sexualised behaviour, acting out the acts and talking about the abuse – where the child was touched and by whom. In older children, the behavioural signs may include running away from home, sudden or distinctive changes in school performance or attendance, withdrawal from friends and family, eating disorders and self injury or violence towards other children. These signs may also be present as a result of other stressful situations that a child might encounter such as other forms of abuse, divorce or separations or parents or the birth of a sibling.
If child sexual abuse is suspected or identified, it is critical that appropriate procedures and measures are taken immediately in order to stop the current abuse and protect the child from further abuse. Assessments are carried out for two main purposes:
- Legal Procedures
- Treatment Purposes
Assessments carried out for legal procedures may be concerned primarily with whether or not abuse has occurred and will centre around procedures designed to encourage disclosure, and checking the reliability of the information.
Assessment for treatment purposes may be concerned less with the nature of the act and focus more on the psychological effects – which is of prime importance to therapists dealing with survivors of abuse.
Once a survivor of child sexual abuse seeks help or enters counselling, goals are devised between the survivor and the therapist. Coming to college may be the first time for a student who has been abused to feel safe and talk about the issue. These relate to the healing process the survivor will go through, and is dependent on the time available. The process will centre on realigning the blame to the perpetrator of the abuse – it is usual for the survivor to feel they are to blame for their own abuse. Different approaches may be used such as individual therapy, art therapy, body work, dream work, movement and relationship work etc.
As feelings of guilt and shame are common among survivors, the feelings and emotions of the survivor will be a focus of the therapy. Once the client accepts that they were not to blame for the abuse, feelings of anger, rage and hatred toward their abuser may begin to emerge. They may want to seek revenge or see the abuser punished for the crime. They may want to seek revenge or see the abuser punished for the crime. The may want to report the abuse and prosecute the abuser. Counselling may help the client through this difficult legal procedure.
The focus of therapy is to empower the person to deal with the issues relating to the abuse and establish healthy, trusting and safe relationships with others.
An important avenue for healing is writing. Survivors can begin to help themselves by keeping a journal about their experience. This gives an opportunity to define one's own reality. It is useful in figuring how one feels, thinks and what one needs to do about the situation.
This process can also be helpful in facing unresolved feelings around abuse. The need to confront either the perpetrator of the abuse or parents for not protecting them from the abuse can be expressed in a letter. This may not necessarily be sent but it can be used to express what one wants without having to think about the possible repercussions. The purpose of the letter is to re-attribute responsibility for the abuse as well as directing one's anger where it belongs.
Survivors can also help themselves by reading of others' experiences of abuse. Becoming aware of how abuse affected other people helps to normalise one's own feelings of rage, disappointment, betrayal, sadness and loss.
Some More Help
The following reading may be helpful:
Bass, E. and Davis, L. (1988) The courage to heal: a guide for women survivors of child sexual abuse New York : Harper and Row
Finkelhor, D. (1984) Child sexual abuse: New theory and research New York : Free Press
Walsh, D. and Liddy, R. (1993) Surviving sexual Abuse Dublin : attic Press
Remember The Counselling and Personal Development Service is here to help – so if you need us, please phone 700 5165 or email firstname.lastname@example.org to make an appointment.
Complied by Catherine Bolger (TCD Counselling Service) and Vicky Panoutsakopoulou (DCU Counselling Service). Edited by Catherine Breathnach