Learning Innovation Unit, Dublin City University

 Writing Module Learning Outcomes

The Cognitive Domain

If a learning outcome requires students to demonstrate thought processes, the six categories of the cognitive domain below will help you to decide what level of cognition is required. Use the list of verbs below to help you choose an action verb relevant to this domain.

Knowledge Student knows something and can recall information (list, recall, draw, write)
Comprehension Student understands what they know (describe, report, recognise)
Application Student can apply something in a different context (choose, find, show)
Analysis Student can break something down into components (contrast, detect, separate)
Synthesis Student can create something new through analysis (combine, create, plan)
Evaluation Student can make judgements about something (Assess, argue, rate)


Arrange Enumerate Name Recite Reproduce
Collect Examine Order Recognise Select
Count Find Outline Recollect Show
Define Identify Present Record State
Describe Label Point Recount Tablulate
Draw List Quote Relate Tell
Duplicate Match Recall Relate Write


Associate Decode  Explain  Indicate  Restate
Change  Defend  Express Infer  Rewrite
Clarify  Describe  Extend  Interpret  Review
Classify  Differentiate  Extrapolate  Locate  Select
Compute Discriminate  Generalise  Paraphrase  Specify
Contrast  Distinguish Identify  Recognise  Summarise
Convert  Estimate  Illustrate  Report  Translate


Add  Compute  Experiment  Operate  Select
Apply Construct  Find  Organise  Show
Assess  Demonstrate  Graph Plot  Simulate
Calculate Develop  Illustrate Practise  Sketch
Change  Discover  Interpret Predict  Solve
Choose  Divide  Interview Prepare  Subtract
Classify  Dramatise  Manipulate Produce  Transfer
Collect  Employ  Map  Relate Translate
Complete Examine  Modify  Schedule  Use


Analyse  Connect  Differentiate  Group Point out
Appraise  Contrast  Discover Identify  Question
Arrange e Criticise Discriminate Illustrate  Relate
Break down  Debate  Distinguish  Infer  Recognise
Calculate Deduce  Divide Inspect  Separate
Categorise  Detect  Draw conclusions  Investigate  Simplify
Classify  Determine Examine  Order  Subdivide
Compare  Develop Experiment  Outline  Test


Argue Construct
Generalise Order  Reconstruct
Arrange Create  Generate  Organise  Relate
Assemble Design  Group  Originate  Reorganise
Categorise  Develop Integrate  Plan  Revise
Collect  Devise  Invent  Prepare  Rewrite
Combine  Establish  Make  Prescribe  Set up
Compile  Explain  Manage  Propose  Summarise
Compose  Formulate  Modify  Rearrange  Synthesise


Appraise Consider 
Discriminate  Monitor  Score
Ascertain Contrast Estimate Predict  Select
Argue  Convince  Explain  Persuade  Standardise
Assess  Criticise  Evaluate Rank  Summarise
Attach Critique  Grade  Rate  Support
Award  Decide  Interpret  Recommend  Test
Choose Defend   Judge   Relate  Validate
Compare  Detect  Justify  Resolve  Value
Conclude  Determine Measure  Revise  Verify